In 1983 the ICTP established a fellowship scheme that was named "The Programme for TRAINING AND RESEARCH IN ITALIAN LABORATORIES (TRIL)". The main motivation for creating such a programme was the increasing demand from many scientists from developing countries to have an advanced experimental counterpart to the theoretical research and lecture-based on training offered at the Trieste Centre.
A more farsighted view was to favour the development of collaborations between the Italian scientific community and individuals, groups, and institutions in developing countries. The main objective remains to strengthen a permanent group of experts within their respective countries who can help sustain the development of a scientific infrastructure and who, being aware of the needs of their own country and of the frontiers of science and technology, may properly influence the decision-makers' choices.
In practice, the TRIL Programme offers scientists from developing countries the opportunity of broadening and strengthening their experience by joining in research work within various branches of the physical sciences at laboratories in Italian universities, public and private research centres. The type of research experience varies from basic studies to industrial projects. In general, research visits last from a few weeks to several months.
The selection is done jointly with the Italian laboratory, and is based on scientific merit in addition to matching of the candidate's expertise to the research lines pursed in the laboratory.